Instrumentation Coding

For ensemble works, we use a standard code to indicate the exact instrumental forces required to perform the work.

Orchestral Works:

For orchestral works, our coding runs in standard score order and may be understood as woodwinds - brass - percussion/harp/strings. Or, in more detail: flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons - horns, trumpets, trombones, tubas - percussion, harps, strings. A plus (+) symbol following a number of indicates that a separate player is required to play the related instrument (piccolo, English horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon, Wagner tuba, cornet, or euphonium). A "d" indicates that one of the players, in addition to playing the primary instrument, also doubles on the related instrument.

For example:

4d2, 3d1+hph, 3d1+Eb, 4d1 - 8d4, 4, 4, 2, timp, perc, 2hp, cel, org, str

4 Flutes, two of them doubling on Piccolo, 3 Oboes, one of them doubling on English horn, plus a separate players playing Heckelphone, 3 Clarinets, one of them doubling on Bass Clarinet, plus a separate player playing Eb clarinet, 4 Bassoons, one of them doubling on Contrabassoon, 8 Horns, 4 of them doubling on Wagner tuba, 4 Trumpets, 4 Trombones, 2 Tubas, Timpani, Percussion, 2 Harps, Celesta, Organ, and Strings

Band Works:

We use a modified version of the orchestra instrumentation coding. The instrumentation coding used here indicates the number of distinct parts, not the number of copies of each part included in a set.

For example:

2+1, 2d1, 1311111, 2+1, 211 - 5, 4, 3, 1, 1 - T+2, hp, pf, db

would be translated:

2 Flutes plus a separate player playing Piccolo, 2 Oboes, one of them doubling on English Horn, 1 Eb Clarinet, 3 Bb Clarinets, 1 Alto Clarinet, 1 Bass Clarinet, 1 Contralto Clarinet, 1 Contrabass Clarinet, 2 Bassoons plus a separate player playing Contrabassoon, 2 Alto Saxophones, 1 Tenor Saxophone, 1 Baritone Saxophone - 5 Trumpets/Cornets, 4 Horns, 3 Trombones, 1 Euphonium/Baritone, 1 Tuba - Timpani and 2 Percussionists, Harp, Piano, and Double Bass.